This post on Conway’s Law is adapted from Chapter 2 of Team Topologies: Organizing Business and Technology Teams for Fast Flow.

Conway’s Law

Conway’s law is critical to understanding the forces at play when organizing teams amidst the long-lasting, unattended impact they can have on our software systems, as the latter have become larger and more interconnected than ever before. But you might wonder if a law from 1968 about software architecture has stood the test of time.

We’ve come a long way after all: microservices, the cloud, containers, serverless. Such novelties can help teams improve locally, but the larger the organization, the harder it becomes to reap the full benefits. The way teams are set up and interact is often based on past projects and/or legacy technologies (reflecting the latest org-chart design, which might be years old, if not decades).

This quote from Ruth Malan provides what could be seen as the modern version of Conway’s law: “If the architecture of the system and the architecture of the organization are at odds, the architecture of the organization wins.”

Malan reminds us that the organization is constrained to produce designs that match or mimic the real, on-the-ground communication structure of the organization. This has significant strategic implications for any organization designing and building software systems, whether in-house or via suppliers.

In particular, an organization that is arranged in functional silos (where teams specialize in a particular function, such as QA, DBA, or security) is unlikely to ever produce software systems that are well-architected for end-to-end flow. Similarly, an organization that is arranged primarily around sales channels for different geographic regions unlikely to produce effective software architecture that provides multiple different software services to all global regions.

Communication paths (along formal reporting lines or not) within an organization effectively restrict the kinds of solutions that the organization can devise. But we can use this to our strategic advantage. If we want to discourage certain kinds of designs—perhaps those that are too focused on technical internals—we can reshape the organization to avoid this.

Similarly, if we want our organization to discover and adopt certain designs—perhaps those more amenable to flow—then we can reshape the organization to help make that happen. There is, of course, no guarantee that the organization will find and use the designs we want, but at least by shaping the communication paths, we are making it more likely.

Organization design using Conway’s law becomes a key strategic activity that can greatly accelerate the discovery of effective software designs and help avoid those less effective.

Software Architectures that Encourage Team-Scoped Flow (The Reverse Conway Maneuver)

To increase an organization’s chances of building effective software systems optimized for flow, a reverse Conway maneuver (or inverse Conway maneuver) can be undertaken to reconfigure the team intercommunications before the software is finished. Although you might get initial pushback, with sufficient willpower from management and awareness from teams this approach can and does work.

Conway’s law tells us that we need to understand what software architecture is needed before we organize our teams, otherwise the communication paths and incentives in the organization will end up dictating the software architecture. As Michael Nygard says: “Team assignments are the first draft of the architecture.”

For a safe, rapid flow of changes, we need to consider team-scoped flow and design the software architecture to fit it. The fundamental means of delivery is the team, so the system architecture needs to enable and encourage fast flow within each team. Thankfully, in practice, this means that we can follow proven software-architecture good practices: